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Hati-hati dengan wabak koronavirus!

January 31, 2020 | Health, Viral | No Comments

Koronavirus mudah tersebar melalui hidung dan mata

TAHUN baharu 2020 bermula suram apabila dunia dikejutkan dengan serangan dahsyat koronavirus yang bermula di Wuhan, China sebelum merebak ke seluruh dunia.

Koronavirus atau singkatannya, CoV, dikatakan sangat berbahaya. Virus yang menjangkiti paru-paru dan saluran pernafasan itu boleh menyebabkan mangsa mati jika tidak dirawat segera.

Di China sahaja setakat semalam, lebih 100 orang meninggal dunia akibat koronavirus. Susulan wabak berkenaan, Wuhan kini bertukar menjadi bandar mati selepas 11 juta penduduknya dikuarantin sejak kira-kira seminggu lalu.

Selain Wuhan, sekurang-kurangnya 17 buah bandar lain melibatkan 56 juta penduduk turut dikuarantin bagi mengelak penularan wabak berkenaan. Itulah penangan CoV.

Barangkali, disebabkan takut, ramai rakyat China mula berhijrah. Ironinya banyak negara lain sudah bertindak menutup pintu laluan masuk buat mereka walaupun ada si pembawa virus sudah lolos di negara ini.

Sama ada kerajaan Malaysia turut akan mengambil langkah menutup pintu atau tidak buat mereka dari China, ada sesuatu lebih menakutkan seantero dunia.

Wabak berbahaya itu berasal hanya daripada binatang liar. Ada pula mendakwa virusnya seakan-akan ‘senjata kimia’ untuk menyerang negara Amerika Syarikat.

Mampukah wabak penyakit itu menjadi ‘tentera serangan’? Apakah pengakhiran wabak yang dikatakan belum ada penawarnya itu? Haiwan liar mana yang menjadi punca wabak? Ikuti kupasan Sihat:Aktif pada minggu ini.

Serangan virus ‘zombi’

TIDAK semena-mena ramai penduduk yang rebah dalam sela masa tidak berapa lama. Mangsa ditemukan ‘mati’ terbaring di merata lokasi.

Kondisi kesemua mangsa sama. Tiba-tiba lemah dan pengsan hingga terbaring tidak kira sama ada di dalam, luar bangunan atau di dalam gerabak serta stesen tren awam tanpa memberikan sebarang respons.

Orang ramai berhampiran yang sememangnya sudah sedia takutkan jangkitan, panik menjauhkan diri. Tidak berani mendekati apalagi membantu.

Mangsa hanya dibawa mendapatkan rawatan sejurus ketibaan anggota kesihatan yang lengkap dengan sut perlindungan.

Jika bernasib baik, mangsa sempat diberi bantuan, sebaliknya ramai yang menemui ajal. Umpama dalam filem, mahu mengelak diri daripada individu yang sudah menjadi zombi dek terkena jangkitan virus ngeri, ramai penduduk ketakutan hanya mengurungkan diri dalam rumah masing-masing.

Mereka juga dikuarantin dan diperiksa di mana-mana. Itu yang berlaku di Wuhan, wilayah Hubei, China sejak dua ke tiga minggu lalu.

Semuanya gara-gara serangan wabak koronavirus. Apa yang menakutkan, jangkitannya kian merebak hingga menjadi ancaman di seluruh dunia.

Susulan terdapat beberapa kes radang paru-paru, Pertubuhan Kesihatan Sedunia (WHO), dalam laman sesawangnya melaporkan, pihak berkuasa China pada 7 Januari lalu mengesahkan koronavirus yang baharu dikenal pasti itu boleh tersebar daripada manusia kepada manusia.

Virus itu tidak sepadan dengan virus lain yang diketahui. Hal itu mencetuskan kebimbangan kerana tidak banyak yang diketahui mengenai sejauh mana tahap bahaya dan kesan jangkitannya terhadap manusia.

Perlu pelindung mata

Menurut WHO, koronavirus adalah keluarga besar virus. Menyebabkan penyakit daripada selesema biasa kepada yang lebih berbahaya, sindromnya seperti Sindrom Pernafasan Akut Teruk (SARS) dan Pernafasan Timur Tengah (MERS-CoV).

Persoalannya, mengapakah wabak itu kian agresif sehinggakan Wuhan sendiri ibarat ‘bandar zombi’?

Benarkah ia bakal menjadi bayang-bayang hitam seantero dunia?

Menyingkap isu di sebalik penularan wabak koronavirus, Sihat:Aktif mendapatkan pandangan Pakar Perunding Perubatan dan Paru-paru (Respiratori), Sunway Medical Centre Velocity, Dr Nurul Yaqeen Mohd Esa.

Agak mengejutkan, wabak koronavirus atau lebih dikenali sebagai ‘2019nCoV’ sebenarnya mempunyai komponen genetik yang paling serupa terdapat pada ular dan kelawar.

Koronavirus mempunyai banyak jenis. Antara yang terkenal ialah MERS-CoV yang pernah menjadi wabak sekitar tahun 2012 hingga 2013 dan SARS (2003).

Terang Dr Nurul Yaqeen, jangkitan juga boleh merebak melalui mata! Jika pesakit terdedah kepada air liur, air bersin dan tangan yang sudah tercemar dengan bakteria itu, ia boleh menjadi punca.

“Mata terhubung dengan hidung melalui kelenjar lakrimal (kelenjar yang merembeskan air mata). Jadi, tidak aneh jika ia boleh merebak melalui mata.

“Meskipun topeng muka melindungi hidung serta mulut, ia tiada pelindung mata.

Itu sebab petugas kesihatan perlu memakai alat pelindung mata,” katanya kepada Sihat:Aktif.

Virus yang ada pada tangan juga boleh disebarkan ke mata melalui sentuhan.

Kongsi Dr Nurul Yaqeen, seorang pakar perubatan dari Universiti Southamptom, United Kingdom, Dr Michael Head, juga menyokong dakwaan berkenaan.

“Virus ini boleh merebak melalui manusia setelah melalui proses mutasi. Kajian terbaharu membuktikan ia boleh merebak antara manusia.

Beberapa kes kematian telah dicatatkan. “Ular berbisa spesies many-banded krait berkemungkinan menjadi punca asalnya penularan wabak koronavirus yang membawa penyakit berkaitan pernafasan yang merebak di China, sejak akhir Disember tahun lalu,” katanya.

Siapa berisiko?

Ya, lapor CNN, ular yang juga dikenali dengan nama saintifiknya Bungarus multicinctus itu, merupakan spesies elapid berbisa yang sering ditemui di selatan China dan Asia Tenggara.

Laporan juga mendapati, ular spesies itu sering dijual di pasaran tempatan sebagai makanan eksotik di Wuhan, sekali gus mengaitkannya sebagai punca wabak itu bermula.

Mereka yang pernah melawat bandar Wuhan atau China dalam tempoh 14 hari sebelum simptom adalah individu paling berisiko dijangkiti wabak berkenaan.

Selain itu, individu yang berhubung rapat dengan pesakit yang dijangkiti virus 2019nCoV seperti ahli keluarga, rakan serumah, doktor dan jururawat yang merawat juga berisiko, ujar Dr Nurul Yaqeen.

Kongsinya lagi, lima kumpulan berisiko tinggi untuk dijangkiti wabak itu adalah individu yang berusia kurang dari enam tahun dan melebihi 65 tahun.

Pesakit kronik seperti kencing manis, darah tinggi, penyakit jantung dan buah pinggang juga berisiko.

“Pesakit kanser yang baru selesai menjalani rawatan kimoterapi, pesakit HIV dan yang menerima rawatan transplan atau pesakit reumato dan mengambil ubat-ubatan ‘immunosuppressant’ juga berisiko mudah terkena wabak ini,” jelasnya.

Setakat Ahad lalu, Kementerian Kesihatan Malaysia (KKM) mengesahkan terdapat empat kes positif yang melibatkan pelancong dari Wuhan, China.

Mereka ialah seorang nenek berusia 66 tahun dan dua orang cucu berumur dua dan 11 tahun. Kesemua mereka mempunyai hubungan dengan dua lelaki yang telah diuji positif koronavirus di Singapura pada 22 Januari lalu.

Kes terbaharu pada 25 Januari lalu, disahkan seorang lelaki berusia 40 tahun yang berasal dari Wuhan. Bagaimanapun, ia dikatakan tidak mempunyai kaitan dengan tiga kes positif seperti yang disahkan sebelum ini.

KKM telah mengaktifkan semua Pasukan Tindakan Pantas (RRT) dan Pasukan Penilaian Pantas (RAT) ekoran kes koronavirus di negara ini.

Pasukan-pasukan itu ditugaskan untuk menjalankan aktiviti pengesanan kontak dan ditempatkan di fasiliti kementerian di seluruh negara termasuk di hospital dan klinik.

Syarikat penerbangan tambang murah, Malindo Air dan AirAsia telah membekukan semua penerbangan dari Wuhan, mahupun ke sana susulan wabak itu.

Malaysia Airports Holdings Bhd (MAHB) juga bekerjasama rapat dengan KKM bagi memeriksa penumpang antarabangsa di lapangan terbang yang merupakan pintu masuk utama negara.

Sementara itu, misi diplomatik Malaysia, termasuk kedutaan di Beijing, sedang menubuhkan pasukan tindak balas kecemasan untuk membantu rakyat Malaysia di kawasan yang terjejas oleh wabak koronavirus tersebut.

Saranan Dr Nurul Yaqeen untuk meminimumkan risiko koronavirus:

1. Menangguh perjalanan ke China berikutan wabak koronavirus kecuali atas urusan penting yang tidak boleh dielakkan.

2. Terus tularkan amalan etika batuk dan bersin yang sihat. Tutup hidung dan mulut dengan tisu ketika batuk dan bersin. Buang tisu tersebut ke dalam tong sampah.

3. Amalkan langkah pencegahan seperti membasuh tangan menggunakan sabun dan pensanitasi tangan serta mengenakan topeng muka dan pelindung mata.

4. Elakkan berkunjung ke tempat tumpuan ramai, ladang haiwan ternakan, pasar yang menjual binatang hidup, pusat sembelihan dan tidak menyentuh sebarang jenis haiwan.

5. Penting sekali, elakkan bersentuhan dengan pesakit yang dijangkiti 2019-nCoV. Jika terpaksa bersentuhan, pakai alat perlindungan dan basuh tangan selepas itu.

Penyebab masalah pernafasan serius, belum ada penawar

SEHINGGA kini belum ada penawar bagi koronavirus.

Pun begitu, tindakan yang boleh dilakukan adalah mengesan kes lebih awal bagi menghalang berlakunya sebarang komplikasi.

Pegawai Perubatan Umum Hospital Islam Az-Zahrah, Dr Norsyazriyatul Aisyah Mohd Subki berkata, satu-satunya kaedah yang boleh digunakan untuk pesakit positif dengan virus tersebut adalah melalui kuarantin dan merawat gejala seperti batuk, selesema dan demam.

Apa tidaknya, menurut Dr Norsyazriyatul, ia berikutan komplikasi serius boleh berlaku dalam kalangan 20 peratus pesakit yang berisiko mengalami masalah gangguan pernafasan serius.

Lebih dikenali sebagai Sindrom Pernafasan Akut Teruk (SARS), kumpulan pesakit ini memerlukan rawatan di unit rawatan rapi. “Lima peratus pesakit koronavirus boleh mengalami kegagalan pernafasan, jangkitan kuman di dalam darah dan masalah kegagalan organ utama,” ujarnya.

Mengulas mengenai dos nelfinavir yang dikatakan mampu mengubati wabak berkenaan, terang Dr Norsyazriyatul, ia masih belum dapat disahkan.

Pun demikian, nelfinavir hanya ubat antiretroviral yang digunakan untuk penyakit HIV dan biasanya akan digabung bersama ubat lain, katanya. Menurut Wall Street Journal, beberapa pengeluar ubat-ubatan di Amerika Syarikat (AS) dan penyelidik di Universiti Queensland, Australia kini sedang bekerja keras membangunkan vaksin virus baharu tersebut.

CNN juga melaporkan bahawa Institut Kesihatan Kebangsaan, agensi utama kerajaan AS yang bertanggungjawab untuk penyelidikan kesihatan bioperubatan dan penyelidikan kesihatan awam, juga sedang menghasilkan vaksin.

Sepasukan saintis di Texas, New York dan China juga berusaha menghasilkan vaksin terbabit, kata CNN, yang memetik Dr Peter Hotez, seorang saintis vaksin di Kolej Perubatan Baylor di Houston.

Terdahulu, sekata seperti Dr Nurul Yaqeen, Dr Norsyazriyatul berkata, simptom penyakit koronavirus sama seperti jangkitan selesema. Ini termasuk batuk, selesema, demam, sakit dan lenguh badan serta menyebabkan komplikasi kepada pesakit yang lemah imuniti seperti pneumonia (jangkitan paru-paru).

Golongan yang lemah imuniti dan berisiko tinggi seperti kanak-kanak, warga tua yang mempunyai masalah kesihatan, ibu mengandung, pesakit kanser serta yang lain-lain sangat berisiko dan mudah dijangkiti. Jelas Dr Norsyazriyatul, koronavirus merupakan ‘keluarga virus’ yang kebanyakannya dijumpai dalam haiwan seperti unta, kelawar, kucing dan lain-lain khususnya spesies mamalia.

“Koronavirus yang menjangkiti manusia adalah seperti Mers-Cov dan SARS serta yang terbaharu, koronavirus adalah sejenis virus yang termutasi,” jelasnya.

Cara jangkitan dipercayai boleh berlaku melalui pemakanan atau tenusu daripada haiwan mentah, sentuhan terus dengan haiwan dan jangkitan individu kepada individu lain melalui titisan pernafasan seperti bersin dan batuk.

“Jadi, tegasnya haiwan berkenaan tidak semestinya menjadi punca utama penyebaran virus berkenaan,” katanya.

ANEKDOT

Perbandingan Virus Koronavirus dan Influenza

1. KORONAVIRUS

Virus nCov, MERS-CoV atau SARS-CoV.

– CARA PENYEBARAN

Melalui pesakit yang batuk dan selesema, sentuhan, makanan yang tidak dimasak dengan bersih dan sempurna.

– SIMPTOM

Demam, selesema, sakit tekak, batuk, sakit kepala, sakit badan, sesak nafas.

– KOMPLIKASI

Jangkitan paru-paru, Sindrom Pernafasan Akut Teruk (SARS), kegagalan buah pinggang dan kematian.

– RAWATAN

Tiada protokol rawatan spesifik.

– VAKSIN

Tiada

2. VIRUS INFLUENZA

Virus influenza A, B atau C

– CARA PENYEBARAN

Melalui titisan salur pernafasan yang dilepaskan oleh pesakit melalui batuk atau bersin serta menerusi sentuhan.

– SIMPTOM

Demam, selesema, sakit tekak, batuk, sakit kepala, sakit badan.

– KOMPLIKASI

Jangkitan paru-paru, keradangan pada jantung (miokarditis), otak (ensefalitis) atau tisu otot (miositis, rabdomiolisis).

– RAWATAN

Konservatif, antiviral.

– VAKSIN

Ada dan perlu diambil setiap tahun.

-sinarharian

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Over the past week, health authorities have been actively debunking false news and misinformation on social media in an attempt to prevent public panic about the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) outbreak

The Ministry of Health (MOH) has repeatedly tweeted and called on Malaysians to stop spreading fake news, pictures, and videos surrounding the outbreak.

In the midst of misinformation being spread, an individual suspected of spreading false news about the virus was arrested

The Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC) announced that they arrested a 34-year-old man in Bangi, Selangor at 4pm yesterday, 28 January, to aid in investigations over a Facebook post that went up on 26 January.

Investigators also seized a mobile phone and SIM card that were believed to have been used to make the fake viral post about the virus.

The suspect is being investigated under Section 233 of the Communications and Multimedia Act 1998, which carries a maximum fine of RM50,000 or jail term of not more than one year, or both

“The stern action is among efforts by the MCMC and Royal Malaysia Police (PDRM) to control the spread of false news on the novel coronavirus by irresponsible individuals, which could jeopardise national stability and public peace,” said the commission.

Malay Mail reported that law enforcement authorities were pursuing three other people over similar offences.

Meanwhile, MOH has compiled a list of the several fake messages that have been circulating in the country in a bid to stop the false alarm

Below are the messages identified and discredited by the Ministry of Health:

WhatsApp
– The first Wuhan virus suspect in Malaysia was admitted to Hospital Tuanku Jaafar, Seremban.
– A coronavirus patient was sent to KPJ Seremban Specialist Hospital.
– The first cases of 2019-nCoV found in Hospital Seberang Jaya, Penang were two Chinese nationals.
– A father of a student from Sekolah Kebangsaan Paka in Terengganu became ill with the Wuhan virus three days after coming back from umrah.
– There was a patient with Wuhan virus in International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Hospital in Kuantan.
– A seven-year-old was found to be coronavirus positive in Hospital Likas, Sabah.
– A list of areas in Selangor with virus outbreaks which also accused the government of claiming they were virus-free.
– A Chinese tourist infected with the virus was staying at Tropicana 218 Macalister Apartment in Penang.

Facebook
– A citizen of “Wong Tong”, China suspected to be infected with coronavirus was in Ayer Keroh Polyclinic in Melaka.
– A picture of the virus under a high-powered microscope.
– Five individuals who just got back from Wuhan suspected with coronavirus were being quarantined in Hospital Sultanah Nur Zahirah in Kuala Terengganu.
– Some died after fainting and having a seizure due to the Wuhan virus in Shah Alam, Selangor.
– A few pictures showing hundreds of Chinese tourists arriving in Langkawi to escape the outbreak.

Twitter
– Mahkota Medical Centre in Melaka was closed due to a death from the coronavirus.
– The first case of the virus was found in a private hospital in Kuantan, Pahang.

SAYS

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Many people may already know that Influenza A is a pretty severe disease that can land you in hospital for days, if not weeks. The symptoms can be difficult to endure and the disease itself is also highly contagious. But what many didn’t know is that Influenza A, if not treated properly, can claim the lives of many people, especially those who are most prone to the disease ie; children  and the elderly.

Unfortunately, the widespread outbreak of Influenza A in Malaysia has allegedly claimed yet another victim, according to Oriental Daily. Nur Dinie Damia Muhammad Noor Ain, who was only seven-years-old, had succumbed to complications due to suspected influenza.

Prior to this, she was being treated at the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the Sultanah Aminah Hospital (HSA), where doctors had said that she had been suffering from physical organ failure, heart failure, and impaired brain function, but still had a heartbeat. Her father announced her death to the media via WhatsApp.

It was said that she had suffered from a severe high fever on 5th January and when brought to a clinic, was diagnosed with Influenza A. However, a PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) test was conducted and found that she did not have Influenza A.

An autopsy will be conducted to obtain more information about the cause of her death.

We extend our deepest condolences to the family of Nur Dinie during this difficult time, and would like to remind everyone reading this to keep an eye on your health, as there can be no telling if you are suffering from Influenza A or not. 

-worldofbuzz

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How to tame the negative self-talk within you

December 3, 2019 | Health, Info | No Comments

There is a saying that we are our worst enemy. Despite how well adjusted you may think you are, a bad day or period of time can trigger off a battery of negative thoughts.

This in turn can cause you to experience everything from anxiety, guilt, anger and even fear.

Additionally, such negative emotions can trigger a vicious cycle of both physical and mental effects: feeling overly stressed, causing hypertension, experiencing bouts of insomnia, spiking one’s cortisol levels – all in all, it’s bad news and a lot more than just unkind, unforgiving thoughts about oneself or one’s situation. 

“We all can successfully reverse the negative spiral of our own thoughts if we practice this [positive speech] regularly,” shares Ralitsa Peeva from Como Shambhala Singapore.

Be it positive affirmations, writing down a list of everything good in your life to actively re-framing a perceived negative scenario, the common denominator is to be mindful and to take active action.

Here’s what Ralitsa advises…

WHAT ARE THE FIVE MOST COMMON NEGATIVE PHRASES AND WHAT ARE SOME OF THE EMOTIONS THAT USUALLY DRIVE SUCH NEGATIVE SELF-TALK?

Our usual negative self-talk is remarkably similar across nations, gender, time, profession or age. Most often we beat ourselves with the following phrases:

“I am not good enough.” “If people really see who I am, they will not love me.” “I am such a disappointment.” “What’s wrong with me?” “I should, I have to, and I must.” 

What we say to ourselves in a particular situation defines how we feel but we rarely notice that it is our thought about the situation rather than the situation itself that triggers our emotions.

Our negative self-talk (or negative automatic thoughts) is embedded deeply in our minds and it takes time and practice to become aware of it and to start replacing it with self-compassion, acceptance and patience.  

WE HAVE SIMILAR THINKING DISTORTIONS WHEN WE THINK ABOUT EVENTS

For example, some of the most common ones, familiar to each of us are black or white thinking (when we think in absolutes with no room for middle ground), catastrophising (when we tend to magnify the impact of events and how awful they would be), personalising (when we take blame and responsibility for anything unpleasant even when it is not related to us), negative filter (when we tend to focus on the one negative comment instead of paying attention to ten positive ones), mind reading (when we believe we know what another person is thinking).

HOW CAN ONE REFRAME THEIR SPEECH TO REFLECT A MORE POSITIVE MANNER?

The key first step is awareness. Notice your usual negative thoughts. Pay attention to what is it that your “inner critic” is constantly berating you with.

Learn to notice when that critic has “hijacked” your mind and you are in the spiral of the negative self-talk.

Notice the thought you are holding. Then ask yourself “What is the evidence?” “Is this a fact or is it my perception right now?” “What would I say to a friend who is in a similar situation?” “Is this one of the thought distortions?” “Am I looking at the whole picture?” “Will this be important in one year?”

When you stop yourself from going down the spiral of the negative thinking, take the next step – think what would be a more helpful thought in this situation?

Did your friend cancel on you because she doesn’t like you, or because she’s had a really difficult day and she needs to rest?

Is your boss really in a bad mood because of your job performance or because the planned merger didn’t turn out the way she was expecting? 

WHAT ARE SOME OF THE LITTLE THINGS ONE CAN LEARN TO DO TO SPEAK FROM A PLACE OF SELF-COMPASSION VS SELF-PITY?

Notice if you are in the “poor-me” mode.

Don’t slip into that mood for too long though because the victim mode rarely gives you a chance to look at the situation differently, and learn and grow from it.

Self-compassion involves personal growth work and giving yourself time to rest, to heal, and to replenish your energy.

Take a few minutes off. Treat yourself with the same respect and empathy with which you would treat your best friend.

WHEN FACED WITH A NEGATIVE PERSON, HOW CAN ONE RE-FRAME THE CONVERSATION?

I encourage clients to put what we call a “titanium shield” where you feel centered, grounded and present and you don’t allow someone else’s storm and drama to spill over because negative moods are “contagious.”

Try to use sense of humour. People who reside more in the negative mood tend to think and speak with phrases like “always” and “never.”

Challenge that; ask “Is it really always true?” Remember that to understand doesn’t mean you have to agree.

You may be present for that person and help them get through an issue but you don’t have to think like them.

INSECURITY IS OFTEN THE CAUSE OF ONE’S NEGATIVE OUTLOOK? WHAT IS YOUR ADVICE TO IMPROVE ONE’S SELF-ESTEEM?

Practice the positive self-talk that works for you. Find the positive affirmations that really resonate with you and keep playing them in your mind.

Take a moment to see all the good qualities that you have. Remind yourself how you’ve managed to get through difficult times and to help other people when they needed you.

The more we notice what works for us and what it is that we bring to the world, to our friends and family, the stronger our self-esteem will be.

-asiaone

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How to avoid burnout at work

November 28, 2019 | Health, Info | No Comments

Feeling long drawn exhaustion, unsatisfied with your job and unproductive? You may be heading toward “burnout”, according to a newly recognized World Health Organisation (WHO) diagnosis.

Around 1 million people skip work every day for reasons linked to professional stress. While it is hard to undo the damage, here are the things you can do to avoid burnout at work according to Business Insider.

KEEP TRACK OF TIME

Life is far too valuable to make work your sole priority. The key to happiness is to find a balance in life, therefore it is important to make time for your own purposes as well.

Use a scheduler or a digital calendar to keep track of how much time you spend in the office, how much work you do at home and how much time you have fully for yourself.

SEPARATE HOME AND OFFICE

When you’re out of the office, but the thought of work suddenly strikes you, that’s when you know that burnout might be coming.

It doesn’t matter whether it’s the evening after work, on the weekend, or during vacation, it is important to disconnect from work in your personal time. Your phone does not need to be always on standby.Also, focusing on different aspects of your life can make you feel inspired and energized when you’re back in work mode.

VACATIONS ARE ALWAYS NECESSARY

Not only do vacations help with productivity and creativity, they are also good for your mental health.

Working through your vacation days might feel right for your career and dreams, however, it is equally as important to take a breather.

Go on a relaxing trip, without the hassle of connecting flights and excessive planning. Even a short getaway nearby can go a long way toward helping you fight workplace burnout.

CHANGE OF SCENERY

Another alternative is to work remotely. This way you can breathe fresh air and enjoy the view without the fear of falling behind.

Working away from the office is also proven to increase the productivity and overall work satisfaction necessary for a successful career.

-asiaone

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Kes sakit mental lelaki kerap gagal dikesan

November 27, 2019 | Health, Lifestyle | No Comments

KES Kesihatan mental dalam kalangan lelaki adalah tinggi tetapi kerap tidak dikesan kerana lelaki tidak menunjukkan simptom dan tanda kepada masyarakat.

​Ia berbeza berbanding wanita. Pengurusan kesihatan mental lelaki memerlukan pendekatan sensitif-jantina yang membantu lelaki untuk berfikiran lebih terbuka.

Selain daripada itu, cabaran terbesar adalah stigma masyarakat berhubung stereotaip negatif kepada individu dengan masalah mental dan dikaitkan dengan ‘gila’.

Stigma itu menjadikan individu berkenaan disisihkan kerana berbeza. Stigma itu juga memberi kesan kepada lelaki untuk mencari bantuan kesihatan mental kerana ketahanan mental yang tinggi berbanding wanita dan imej maskulin.

Lelaki lebih cenderung untuk menyendiri dan tidak berkongsi lalu melepaskan rasa atau kesedihan mereka melalui perkara lain seperti melakukan keganasan, mengambil alkohol, dadah atau membunuh diri.

-sinarharian

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Alzheimer bukan penuaan normal

November 27, 2019 | Health, Lifestyle | No Comments

Darah tinggi, kencing manis, obesiti dan kemurungan meningkatkan gejalanya yang berkait demensia atau nyanyuk

PENYAKIT alzheimer sangat berkait dengan gangguan progresif yang menyebabkan sel-sel otak merosot dan mati. Penyakit itu juga menjadi penyebab demensia yang paling biasa.

Ia akan mengakibatkan kemerosotan berterusan dalam kemahiran berfikir, tingkah laku dan sosial yang mengganggu keupayaan seseorang berfungsi secara bebas yang biasanya dikaitkan dengan anggapan masyarakat sebagai ‘sakit nyanyuk’.

Petanda awal yang mudah tentang penyakit itu lazimnya senang terlupa akan peristiwa mahupun topik perbualan yang baharu saja berlaku.

Andai kata penyakit berkenaan dibiarkan berlanjutan, seseorang yang mengalami alzheimer akan mengalami gangguan ingatan yang teruk sehingga kehilangan keupayaan menjalankan tugas seharian.

Lebih serius, penghidap alzheimer mungkin tidak dapat memahami perkataan yang biasa digunakan, mengenali ahli keluarga malah menjaga diri sendiri.

Kita semua akan tua. Justeru bagaimana untuk mengelakkan penyakit yang dikatakan sering dihidapi golongan berusia itu?

Perkongsian Mayo Clinic pula menekankan, belum ada rawatan yang mampu menyembuhkan penyakit alzheimer atau mengubah proses penyakit itu di otak.

Peringkat lanjut penyakit tersebut dikatakan menyebabkan komplikasi kehilangan fungsi otak yang teruk seperti dehidrasi, kekurangan zat makanan atau jangkitan malah mengakibatkan kematian!

Justeru apa rawatan berkesan untuk menangani gejalanya daripada bakal menyelubungi seseorang? Ikuti perkongsian Sihat:Aktif bersama beberapa pakar bagi menjawab persoalan berkaitan.

Dunia penderita alzheimer

AMIR Hamdan, 35, risau dengan perubahan ketara bapanya, Hamdan Rais, 67, sejak beberapa bulan lalu.

Pesara kakitangan kerajaan itu secara fizikalnya kelihatan sihat, tetapi kerap ‘hilang ingatan’.

“Biarpun baharu bercakap bapanya akan mengulangi pertanyaan yang sama. Kadangkala saya juga kurang faham apa yang hendak dipertuturkannya.

“Sering juga masalah ingatannya itu menyebabkan bapa saya lupa di mana dia meletakkan barang seperti kunci rumah dan dokumen penting. Jika bertanya pula, emosi mudah berubah, tiba-tiba boleh jadi begitu sensitif,” cerita Amir kepada Sihat:Aktif.

Risau dengan keadaannya yang dikhuatiri mempunyai masalah emosi semenjak pemergian ibu tersayang, Amir membawa bapanya itu berjumpa doktor. Hasil diagnosis, Hamdan didapati mengalami alzheimer!

Jika menyingkap dapatan Persekutuan Penyakit Alzheimer Antarabangsa (ADI), ADI menjangkakan pesakit alzheimer meningkat daripada 35.6 juta orang pada tahun 2010 kepada 65.7 juta orang (2030) dan 115.4 juta orang (2050).

Statistik dalam negara pula, bancian tahun 2010 menunjukkan Malaysia mempunyai hampir 2.2 juta atau tujuh peratus warga emas.

Jumlah kumpulan usia itu dijangka terus meningkat setiap tahun, malah negara ini diunjur akan menjadi ‘negara tua’ menjelang tahun 2030, iaitu apabila peratusan warga emasnya mencecah 15 peratus.

Ya, kita biasa mendengar alzheimer yang lazimnya menyelubungi warga emas. Namun, berdasarkan data tadi, adakah penyakit itu ‘gejala biasa’ yang tidak perlu diambil pusing oleh ahli keluarga terdekat dengan pesakit itu, apatah lagi masyarakat?

Menghuraikan tentang alzheimer, Sihat:Aktif mendapatkan pandangan Pakar Geriatrik Psikiatri, Jabatan Psikiatri dan Kesihatan Mental, Hospital Tuanku Jaafar, Seremban, Negeri Sembilan, Dr Suhaila Mohamad Zahir.

Jejas fungsi otak

Penyakit alzheimer bukanlah proses penuaan yang normal. Ia suatu penyakit yang menjejaskan fungsi otak secara progresif yang membawa kepada penurunan dalam keupayaan otak untuk berfungsi dengan baik dari segi ingatan (memori), penghakiman, penggunaan bahasa, perancangan dan tingkah laku.

Itu merupakan salah satu daripada jenis demensia yang paling biasa ditemui, jelas Dr Suhaila.

Lebih lanjut terhadap tanda-tanda awal penyakit itu pula menurutnya mungkin tidak sama antara satu individu dengan individu yang lain.

“Namun, gangguan daya ingatan bersifat ringan sebagai contoh lupa tentang nama benda, tempat, kejadian atau kandungan percakapan yang baru berlaku adalah gejala-gejala yang sering berlaku.

“Di peringkat awal, ingatan tentang kejadian yang telah lama berlaku kebiasaannya masih belum terjejas,” terangnya kepada Sihat:Aktif.

Antara tanda-tanda awal alzheimer yang lain jelas Dr Suhaila adalah:

  • Mempunyai masalah mencari perkataan dan berkomunikasi. Kesukaran mencari perkataan yang betul untuk objek setiap hari adalah satu tanda demensia di peringkat awal. Seseorang yang mengalami demensia boleh lupa perkataan yang mudah seperti ‘cawan’ dan menggantikannya dengan perkataan yang lain atau frasa seperti ‘benda yang digunakan untuk mengisi air untuk minum’.
  • Mengalami kesukaran untuk merancang dan penyelesaian masalah serta membuat keputusan yang biasa dilakukan.
  • Keupayaan untuk memahami idea-idea abstrak dan menyelesaikan masalah terjejas. Sebagai contoh seseorang yang mengalami alzheimer dementia mungkin terlupa atau tidak memahami bahawa beliau perlu membayar apabila membeli barang.
  • Perubahan emosi dan tingkah laku. Boleh berubah menjadi murung, cepat gelisah dan bertukar menjadi cepat terganggu sama ada dari segi percakapan atau tingkah laku. Emosi menjadi lebih sensitif dan cepat berubah-ubah tanpa alasan yang jelas.
  • Perubahan dalam personaliti. Boleh menjadi lebih pendiam atau lebih cepat marah.
  • Hilang minat dengan kerja dan aktiviti kemasyarakatan.
  • Tidur lebih kerap pada waktu siang dan berjaga pada waktu malam.

Sejenis gangguan mental?

Gejala psikologi dan tingkah laku berkait rapat dengan penyakit alzheimer dementia (AD), jelas Dr Suhaila.

Kajian menunjukkan 64 peratus daripada pesakit AD mengalami sekurang-kurangnya satu jenis gejala-gejala psikologi dan tingkah laku dalam konteks demensia.

“Antara gejala psikologi yang boleh berlaku adalah delusi, halusinasi, kemurungan, anxiety dan sukar tidur.

“Sementara gejala tingkah laku adalah seperti percakapan yang agresif, kegelisahan dan berjalan mundar-mandir tanpa tujuan,” kata beliau.

Terang Dr Suhaila lagi, gangguan emosi seringkali berlaku di peringkat ringan (mild) pada fasa penyakit AD. Gangguan tingkah laku dan gejala psikosis seperti halusinasi dan delusi sering berlaku dalam kalangan pesakit AD yang berada di peringkat sederhana (moderate).

Pun begitu, apabila penyakit AD itu mengalami progresif ke fasa advance, gejala psikologi dan tingkah laku akan semakin berkurangan.

Siapa ‘sasaran’ penyakit demensia itu?

AD seringkali dihadapi oleh seseorang yang berusia 65 tahun ke atas. Anggaran prevalens adalah sebanyak lima peratus untuk mereka yang berumur 65 tahun ke atas dan berganda setiap lima tahun, sehingga melebihi 25 peratus bagi umur 85 tahun ke atas.

Namun ia juga boleh berlaku dalam kalangan yang berumur kurang dari 60 tahun, kata Dr Suhaila.

Seperkara menurutnya, faktor genetik hanya kurang lima peratus daripada kesemua kes-kes AD.

Boleh disembuhkan?

Menjawab tanda tanya itu, terang beliau rawatan yang ada boleh melambatkan proses kemerosotan penyakit, terutamanya pada peringkat ringan atau awal tahap demensia.

“Penting mengenalpasti masalah ini pada peringkat awal kerana masih banyak peluang untuk intervensi tingkah laku dan rawatan dengan ubat.

“Dinasihatkan juga untuk mengamalkan cara hidup sihat termasuk menjaga pemakanan, senaman konsisten dan mempelajari sesuatu baru yang boleh merangsang minda,” katanya.

Mengulas bentuk rawatan yang boleh diberikan jelas Dr Suhaila ia adalah dengan:

1 Ubat-ubatan – Untuk melambatkan proses kemerosotan fungsi kognitif. Ada juga rawatan untuk masalah kemurungan, kegelisahan dan psikosis.

2 Kognitif stimulasi – Intervensi stimulasi kognitif seperti terapi reminiscent, kerja-kerja kraftangan, padanan perkataan dan gambar sama ada secara individu atau berkumpulan boleh membantu meningkatkan kualiti kehidupan dan aspek komunikasi pesakit. Sebaiknya, intervensi stimulasi itu berpadanan dengan tahap keupayaan pesakit.

3 Intervensi tingkah laku – Kenal pasti apakah perkara atau situasi yang menyebabkan tercetusnya gejala tingkah laku tersebut. Itu kerana kebanyakan masa, situasi yang mencetus gejala boleh diubah atau diperbaiki agar mengurangkan gejala tingkah laku itu.

4 Terapi psikologi penjaga pesakit – Dalam merawat pesakit AD, kesihatan mental keluarga yang menjaga pesakit juga diambil kira. Terapi sokongan dan intervensi psikologi boleh diberikan kepada ahli keluarga atau penjaga yang memerlukan.

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Any amount of regular running is associated with a lower risk of dying prematurely, particularly from cancer or heart disease, compared to not running at all, a research review suggests.

Researchers examined data from 14 previous studies with a total of 232,149 adults who were followed for 5.5 to 35 years. During that time, 25,951 of them died.

Compared to individuals who didn’t run at all, those who did were 27 per cent less likely to die for any reason during the study, 30 per cent less likely to die of cardiovascular disease and 23 per cent less likely to die of cancer.

The frequency, duration, pace and total weekly running time didn’t appear to impact the lowered mortality risk associated with running, the analysis found.

“Increased rates of participation in running, regardless of its dose, would probably lead to substantial improvements in population health and longevity,” Zeljko Pedisic of the Institute for Health and Sport at Victoria University in Melbourne, Australia, and colleagues write in the British Journal of Sports Medicine.

“Any amount of running, even just once a week, is better than no running, but higher doses of running may not necessarily be associated with greater mortality benefits,” Pedisic and colleagues write.

The World Health Organisation recommends that adults aged 18 to 64 get at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise or at least 75 minutes of intense activity every week.

Ideally, each exercise session should last at least 10 minutes.

Moderate-intensity activities can include things like brisk walking, gardening, ballroom dancing, water aerobics or a leisurely bike ride.

Vigorous exercise includes things like jogging, lap swimming and cycling at a minimum of 10 miles per hour, according to the American Heart Association.

The current analysis, however, suggests that running much less than these guidelines recommend could still make a big difference, the researchers conclude.

For example, running no more than once a week for less than 50 minutes at a speed below 6 mph (or below 8 kph) still seemed to be associated with longevity benefits.

This means running for 25 minutes less than the recommended weekly duration of vigorous physical activity could boost longevity, the researchers note.

This makes running a potentially good option for those whose main obstacle to exercise is lack of time, they say.

But upping the “dose” by running longer than the guidelines suggest wasn’t associated with a further lowering of the risk of death from any cause, the analysis showed.

The analysis wasn’t designed to prove whether or how running might impact death rates.

And the studies included in the analysis did not account completely for other factors that might influence the results, such as illnesses besides cancer or heart disease that could prevent some people from running and contribute to their earlier death, the authors note.

In addition, the analysis doesn’t show how much running is ideal, how fast people should go, or how long or far each workout should be for optimal longevity benefits.

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Mental health is something being talked about more and more these days. The issue’s elevation in the public’s eyes, and the increasingly large amount that people know about it from a medical viewpoint, have helped turn it into an issue with solutions, rather than a dark force that is too mysterious to begin to handle.

No place could have a greater impact on mental health than the office, where many people spend every day of the week. Solutions for managing mental health in the workplace are always being uncovered and explored.

You must know what can be done to help boost mental health in the workplace. So here are some important things to note.

1. Take physical breaks

When you take a break at work, a lot of people find themselves getting out of their office chair, going to another chair, and looking at their phone screens. While you may feel this is relaxing, it is also not advisable from a physical or mental health point of view.

Office life can be so naturally stationary that you miss out on exercise and fresh air.

Exercise helps carry oxygen-rich blood to your brain, helps you sleep better at night, and exposes you to fresh air and the outdoors, all of which have demonstrated to be beneficial to your mood and your overall state of mental health.

2. Be sensitive and kind to others

There are two reasons why this is highly recommended.

First of all, it’s nice to be kind. Not only because others will appreciate it, and it’s an objectively good trait to have, but also because those around you may have struggles you don’t know about, that are helped by someone treating them kindly.

Second of all, it’s good for your mind as well. “Being kind to others, and looking for ways to support those around you, actually increases your happiness.

“It requires so little to show people some acts or words of kindness, and it will make you feel better,” says Sarah McCallan.

That extra boost could go a long way if you do it every day.

3. Draw the work life boundary

One thing freelancers are struggling with is not letting their work sink into their private lives. Well, the same goes for desk workers, too.

You need to make sure that you’re firm about when you’re in work mode and when you can relax.

If the office becomes an all-consuming force in your life, you will start feeling depressed quickly.

However, if you are strict, it will boost productivity and allow you to relax, physically and mentally, much more effectively.

You need to make room for yourself to be an employee and a real person, no matter how difficult it can be.

4. Share your thoughts

The ideal atmosphere for the workplace is a sense of respectful privacy, but with an openness to self-expression when necessary.

“The modern workplace is slowly learning that the embodiment of emotions or feelings of depression and anxiety is not only detrimental to health but also harmful to the company.

“It’s a pity that some corporate incentive is needed to make this happen, but workplaces are trying to make room, and time for people to get things off their chests which will lead to better support for those struggling with mental health problems,” says Emma Jones, a health blogger.

Sharing these things can have a very large impact on how you feel about them, no matter how much you feel, it would be awkward or difficult. It is very important to try to cultivate that atmosphere.

Conclusion

Mental health should be a top priority for companies of all sizes. Employees are not all robots (yet) that can handle immense stress and work versus life balance without breaking a sweat.

Luckily, this list will help you think about healthy mental practices in a productive way.

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Smoking tobacco cigarettes could increase the risk of mental health problems such as depression and schizophrenia, research suggests.

It has long been known that smoking is more common among people with mental health conditions. However, it has been unclear whether smoking could be a factor in causing such problems or is simply a form of self-medication among those already living with poor mental health.

Scientists say they have now unpicked the issue. “What we found was that there was evidence of causal effects in both directions,” said Dr Robyn Wootton, the first author of the research, from the University of Bristol.

Wootton said that while the serious physical consequences of smoking were already known, the new research underlined the importance of preventing people from starting the habit and helping smokers to quit to protect their mental health – whether or not they have existing mental health problems.

“Of course, if [smoking] is also making the risk of mental illness worse then we should be helping individuals who have existing mental health problems to stop as well,” she said.

Writing in the journal Psychological Medicine, Wootton and colleagues report how they compared the risk of developing depression or schizophrenia among people with and without a genetic predisposition to smoking cigarettes. As such genetic variants are randomly distributed across the population – and are not changed by factors such as alcohol consumption, income, exercise or other health issues – the approach is a type of natural experiment that reduces the chances of any link being down to other factors.

The team focused on 378 genetic variants that have previously been linked to whether people start smoking, as well as 126 genetic variants the team found were linked to a higher score for lifetime smoking – a measure encompassing how heavily people smoked, for how long, and if they quit.

Wootton and colleagues then used two separate genetic databases, one including thousands of individuals with schizophrenia and the other including thousands of individuals with major depression, to explore whether the risk of having such conditions was linked to the genetic variants for smoking.

The results reveal that both starting smoking and higher levels of smoking are linked to a greater risk of both depression and schizophrenia. As an example, an individual who smoked 20 cigarettes a day for 15 years but then did not smoke for 17 years had more than twice the odds of developing schizophrenia and almost twice the odds of developing depression than someone who had never smoked.

The team also looked to see whether people with a genetic predisposition to depression or schizophrenia smoked more. While they did indeed find such an effect, it was weaker than for the opposite direction.

However, the study has limitations, including that it focused on people of European ancestry.

Wootton said it was necessary to explore exactly how smoking might increase the risk of schizophrenia and depression, but one possibility was that nicotine influences pathways in the brain linked to mental health problems. That could be important, she added, since nicotine is also found in electronic cigarettes.

Cannabis use might also help to explain the findings, since high-strength cannabis has previously been suggested to increase the risk of mental health problems, and those who smoke have a greater risk of cannabis dependency.

Dr Ian Hamilton, an expert in addiction and mental health from the University of York, said: “While the physical harms of smoking are well known, this research points to the mental health risks of using tobacco. This risk should be communicated widely but particularly to school-age children who might be tempted to try smoking.”

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